APPENDIX A (Revision 1 07/07/2011)
UNOLS Rope and Cable Safe Working Load Standards

 

A.0         DEFINITIONS

A.0.1      WINCH OWNER:  The party or their representative who is normally responsible for the operation, inspection, maintenance, and testing of the winch. This could be the vessel operator or the scientific party.

A.0.2      ROPE:  A woven, flexible tension member with no internal conductors. It may be made from natural fibers, synthetic fibers, or metal.

A.0.3      CABLE:  A woven, flexible tension member with internal conductors or other means of transmitting data such as glass fiber.

A.0.4      TENSION MEMBER:  Generic name used to describe a rope or cable in service for over the side work.

A.0.5      ELASTIC LIMIT:  The elastic limit or yield point of a material is the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. Prior to the yield point the material will deform elastically and will return to its original shape when the applied stress is removed. Once the yield point is passed some fraction of the deformation will be permanent and non-reversible. For rope or cable this is the load that causes permanent set, or deformation, of the wires.  (See Background Information)

A.0.6      TRANSIENT LOADS:  Loads induced which are temporary by nature, including the weight of entrained mud, weight of entrained water, pull out loads, drag due to package characteristics and/or winch speed, etc.

A.0.7      DYNAMIC LOADS:  Loads induced due to vessel motion (heave, roll, pitch, etc.)

A.0.8      “g” = The vertical acceleration due to gravity.  For normal static loading (no dynamic effect), “g” is equal to 1.0.  To take into account dynamic effect due to ship’s motion and package drag, the simple static load is multiplied by a factor higher than 1.0. Under ABS standards, normally 1.75 or 2.0 for vertical accelerations is used depending on the application. “g” is applied to the mass of the package and tension member, not the weight.

A.0.9      “D” = The root diameter of the sheave.

A.0.10    “d” = The outside diameter of the cable or rope.

A.0.11    "d1" = For cable the largest diameter wire in the armor wires. For wire rope the largest of the outer wires.

A.0.12    “w” = The width of the sheave groove supporting the sides of the tension member.

A.0.13    Deleted

A.0.14    NOMINAL BREAKING LOAD (NBL):  Manufacturer’s minimum published breaking load for a rope or cable.

A.0.15    Deleted

A.0.16    FIXED ENDS (FE) Both ends of the tension member being fixed without the ability to swivel. Most wire rope and cable NBL values are based on FE. An example of a fixed end application is towing a MOCNESS.

A.0.17    FREE TO ROTATE The end of the tension member is free to rotate either because a swivel is at the end of the tension member or the package at the end of the tension member can rotate freely. Tension members used in free to rotate applications typically have a NBL below the fixed end NBL. An example of a free to rotate application is a lowered CTD package. 

A.0.18    INDUCED ROTATION Induced rotation occurs when external forces cause torque to be applied to the tension member. An example of an induced rotation situation would be a tow vehicle that spins while being towed but a swivel is not in place to decouple the vehicle from the tension member.  This situation could develop if the tail fin of a corer was bent. Induced rotation should never be allowed to occur on a tension member that has not been specifically designed for this purpose.

A.0.19    TESTED BREAKING LOAD (TBL):  The actual load required to pull a tension member to destruction as determined by testing. Depending on the intended use of the tension member testing may need to be done under fixed end and free to rotate conditions.

A.0.20    ASSIGNED BREAKING LOAD (ABL): Will be the lowest of the Nominal Breaking Load and Tested Breaking Load.   In practice ABL will be equal to NBL used unless testing shows TBL to be less than NBL.  An ABL that is greater than the NBL may never be used. Depending on the intended use of the tension member there may be two ABLs for fixed end and free to rotate conditions.

A.0.21    SAFE WORKING LOAD (SWL):  The maximum tension that is allowed to be applied to the tension member during normal operation.

A.0.22    Deleted

A.0.23    FACTOR OF SAFETY (FS): For the purpose of this document defined as Assigned Breaking Load / Safe Working Load.

A.0.24    SWL = ABL / FS For the purposes of this standard, FS shall be considered the value selected by the operator.  Because there may be two different ABLs (fixed end & free to rotate) there may be two SWLs. Section 6.0 defines the minimum standards that must be met to select specific FS values.

A.0.25    Auto-Render: The capability of the winch to automatically pay out at a pre-set maximum tension in order to prevent the tension member from exceeding the pre-set tension.

A.0.26    Render/Recover: A means of a winch to automatically maintain a pre-set tension by alternately paying-out and hauling back. Generally recovery haul back is limited to the point of the initial rendering.

A.1         REFERENCES

A.1.1      HANDBOOK OF OCEANOGRAPHIC WINCH, WIRE AND CABLE TECHNOLOGY, Third Edition.

A.1.2      Mechanics of Materials, Second Edition, Gere and Timoshenko, 1984

A.1.3      Wires and Cables Deployed Overside of RVS Vessel – Generic Operating Limits, Document Number SE301050, Issue No.:  001, 12/01/00.

A.2         GENERAL

A.2.1      46 CFR 189.35 – “Weight Handling Gear” describes design standards for handling systems aboard inspected oceanographic research vessels.  However, this standard does not address FS on the tension members.  The purpose of this appendix to the RVSS is to establish safe and effective operating limits for vessels in the UNOLS fleet for tension members loaded beyond traditional shore-side limits.

A.2.2      This standard seeks to define the requirements, which must be adhered to during over-the-side deployments in order to maintain a safe working environment for all personnel aboard. The secondary goal of this standard is to minimize damage to tension members and handling equipment, and the loss of scientific equipment, while still permitting the science objective to be met. 

A.2.3      Normal operation beyond the parameters defined in this standard is forbidden. Exceptions to this are an emergency situation declared by the Master or other officer in charge of the vessel.

A.2.4      Loading limitations are expressed in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) on Assigned Breaking Load (ABL) in this document. 

A.2.5      The limits in this document may not be used where other regulations are applicable, for example, on cargo cranes. In such cases, the shore-side regulations, which apply, must be adhered to.  For example, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) generally require a 5.0 FS on cable breaking strength.

A.2.6      This standard assumes that the tension member is properly used for its intended purpose.

A.2.7      This standard will be complied with no later than 01 June 2011 with the exception of rollers.  The addition of rollers to the requirements in tables 6.1 to 6.4 is new and incorporated into the RVSS as part of this revision to Appendix A.  Roller diameter shall meet this requirement as soon as the appropriate equipment modifications can be funded and purchased and no later than 01 June 2015.  Additionally as part of Revision 1 to Appendix A, Table 6.1 for operating with a FS of 5.0 or greater has been modified to require sheave and roller diameters “as large as practicable” versus equal or greater than the manufacturer’s recommendations. 

A.3         INSPECTION, TESTING AND PREVENTATIVE REQUIREMENTS

A.3.1      Cable paths and fairlead arrangements vary widely from ship to ship and change over both the short term (from cruise to cruise) and the life of the vessel.  It is impossible to develop a set of standards, which tries to quantify the precise effects on breaking strength, or tension member life, as a result of system design.  Instead, each vessel must have a testing program in place, which suits how their tension members are used, and routinely evaluates the status of each.  The assumption is that the results of testing will indicate the effect of both the loading and system design on the breaking strength of the tension member.

A.3.2      The testing program followed shall be based on the FS selected by the Owner, which is in turn based on use and the particulars of the handling system employed.  The Owner shall have documentation in place specifying the FS for each tension member in use.

A.3.3      Tension member test samples shall be a clean, “representative” length from the end that will be put into future use, not simply the end immediately adjacent to the existing termination.  Although this may not be the location of maximum loading during operations, this represents a practical means of determining ABL from an operational standpoint.

A.3.4      The initial ABL shall be assigned through testing by the UNOLS Wire Pool before distribution to the fleet.  If the initial test results in an ABL less than the NBL, the Wire Pool shall reject the tension member.

A.3.5      If subsequent testing results in a TBL that is greater than or equal to the initial ABL, the initial ABL shall be used by the Vessel Operation for the purposes of this standard.

A.3.6      If subsequent testing results in a TBL that is less than the initial ABL, then the new TBL shall be used in lieu of the initial ABL by the Vessel Operation for the purposes of this standard.

A.3.7      Method of determining (TBL) – Steel Wires and Cables:  ASTM A931-96, “Standard Test Method for Tension Testing of Wire Rope and Strand” (Re-approved 2002) shall be used. Tests shall be done with one end of the tension member free to rotate.

A.3.8      The Vessel Operator shall send samples to a UNOLS-accepted test facility (WHOI Wire Pool) for consistency of testing purposes and maintaining statistics.  For steel cables and wire rope, the Operation shall send a five-meter (16 ft.) test sample (as described in Section 4.3) terminated on both ends with the fittings normally used in the field.   If the field terminations are found to not develop full breaking strength, a test may be conducted using standard poured epoxy resin terminations.

A.3.9      The Vessel Operator shall also provide a copy of the wire history or wire log information with the sample and, as a minimum, this should include the following:

A.3.10    A hard copy and/or electronic copy of the TBL test results and ABL will be provided to the Vessel Operator for each sample tested

A.3.11    Method of determining (TBL) – Synthetic Ropes and Cables:  [RESERVED]

A.3.12    Electromagnetic Testing: [RESERVED]

A.3.13    DC Resistance Testing:  [RESERVED]

A.3.14    Retirement – Steel Ropes and Cables:  Beside obvious physical damage (kinks, bird caging, abrasion, broken strands, excessive corrosion, etc.), a length of tension member shall be removed from service, or cut back so that the unacceptable length is removed, if any of the three following criteria are met:

A.3.15    Retirement – Synthetic Ropes and Cables:  [RESERVED] 

A.3.16    Lubrication:  As long as these testing and inspection programs are adhered to, lubrication of steel tension members is not expressly required.  However, if an operation determines that it is cost effective, and does not affect the quality of the science data collected, lubrication is highly encouraged since it generally extends service life.

A.3.17    Fresh Water Wash Down: While understanding that fresh water is limited at sea, an automatic system that washes the tension member on retrieval is highly encouraged since it greatly extends service life.

A.4         BACKGROUND INFORMATION

A.4.1      Performance Over a Rolling Sheave:  When a steel wire rope or cable passes over a rolling sheave, up to a 30% reduction in breaking strength can occur (Ref 1.1 Section 6.4, Pg. 8-22).  For a tension member with a nominal breaking load of 10,000 lbs., this would be a reduction in strength of 3,000 lbs.  Using a FS of 1.5 in this example, the Safe Working Load equals 6,667 lbs – or a reduction of 3,333 lbs. – just above the reduction in strength anticipated. Since all oceanographic tension members pass over at least one sheave, this is the primary argument for not exceeding a FS of 1.5.

A.4.2      Yield Point and Elastic Limit:  “Yield Point” is where continued deformation will occur without adding significantly more load.  The “Elastic Limit” is considered to be the load, which induces permanent set or deformation.  For steel, the “Yield Point” and “Elastic Limit” are essentially the same for all practical purposes.  However, these two points may be quite different for other materials such as synthetics and glass fiber.  Since wire rope and cables are made of strands and are not solid bars of steel, the precise Yield Point can be hard to determine by testing.   A point on the stress-strain curve known as “0.2% Offset Yield” is used instead.  The 0.2% Offset Yield for three-strand wire rope can be found in Section 2.2 (pg 1-5) of Reference 1.

A.4.3      For cables with copper conductors, the yield point generally occurs anywhere from 50-55% of the breaking strength (FS = 1.8) at which point the performance of conductors deteriorates.  This is the principle argument for not exceeding a FS of 2.0 for steel cables with copper conductors, the goal being to maintain conductor performance over the life of the cable. 

A.4.4      For wire rope, the yield point generally occurs around 75% of the breaking strength (FS = 1.33).  This is the other reason for not exceeding a FS of 1.5 on steel wire rope, the goal being to maintain the useful life of the wire rope.  This limit matches well with the performance over rolling sheaves above.

A.4.5      When using low FS in oceanographic research, the capabilities of the tension member monitoring system become critical with respect to capturing and displaying dynamic loads. This standard is divided into three primary sections (Tables 6.1 – 6.4) because of this; with each section having increasingly stringent requirements for the monitoring system.  If the monitoring system is not capable of reliably capturing peak (or low) dynamic loads, then the chosen FS must keep the tension member below its yield point. 

A.4.6      For example, on a tension member with a breaking strength of 20,000 lbs, the approximate yield point would be 20,000 x 0.75 = 15,000 lbs.   Using a FS of 2.5, the allowable loading would be 20,000/2.5 = 8,000.  If the system is not capable of reliably capturing dynamic effect, then a worst case scenario of 1.75 times static load would have to be assumed (i.e. “g” = 1.75), or 8,000 x 1.75 = 14,000.  14,000 is below the approximate yield strength of 15,000 so the integrity of the tension member would be preserved despite the monitoring system.  The graph below illustrates this, and is why a FS of 2.5 is used as the lower limit in Table 6.2

A.4.7      When a tension measuring system is not available which forces using a minimal FS of 5.0, estimates of tension due to “dynamic loading” must be done based on mass not weight. In general, the weight of the package, entrained water and the cable or rope in air is roughly equal to the mass. Do not use weight in water for the dynamic loading estimates. 

A.5         WINCHES AND HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN

A.5.1      All handling systems and winches, whether portable or permanently installed, must be properly designed to an appropriate standard as described in Appendix B of the RVSS. 

A.5.2      A calibrated weak link or “Auto-render” may be used by the vessel to ensure the chosen wire FS that best meets operational demand is maintained.

A.5.3      For operations where the weak link itself might be entangled or buried, then Auto-Render shall be the preferred method of strain relief.

A.5.4      Depending on the particular handling system and the type of vessel per Appendix B, when the NBL is at or below the Safe Working Load (SWL) of all components in the handling system, a weak link or Auto-Render may be set to the desired FS that best meets operational demand per Tables 6.1 – 6.4. (See Example 7.4)

A.5.5      Depending on the particular handling system and the type of vessel per Appendix B, when the ABL is higher than the SWL of any component in the handling system then the weak link or Auto-Render may be set equal to or below the SWL of the weakest component.  (See Example 7.5)

A.6      REQUIREMENTS

 

A.6.1      Operating tension members with a Factor of Safety (FS) less than 5.0 results in increasingly higher levels of risk to personnel and equipment.  To manage the higher risks so that operations stay within a manageable level, Tables 6.1 to 6.4 were developed.  These tables outline the procedures and equipment requirements that must be in place to operate at different ranges of Factor of Safety.  It is the operator’s discretion at which FS they choose to operate under as long as they meet the requirements for that FS. 

 

A.6.2      The impact that the diameter of sheaves in the wire path have on tension member service life and safety is significant.  For higher loads such as those seen when operating with a FS less than 5.0, having adequately sized sheaves is critical.  Further study has shown that the diameter of load carrying rollers has an equally critical impact on tension member service life.  For this reason Revision 1 to the RVSS Appendix A now includes load carrying rollers along with sheaves in the requirements of Tables 6.1 to 6.4.  Only load carrying rollers are impacted by Revision 1 to Appendix A.  A load carrying roller would be any roller in the wire path that serves to change the direction of the loaded tension member. 

 

A.6.3      Examples of rollers where the requirements of Appendix A apply:

 

 

A.6.4      Examples of rollers where the requirement of Appendix A do not apply:

 

 


 

 

Table 6.1 - Wire Rope or Cable - Factor of Safety 5.0 or greater

General

Wire Rope or Cable of steel construction may be operated to a nominal FS = 5.0 on the ABL, including transient and dynamic loads, as long as the following precautions in this section are adhered to.

When the minimum Factor of Safety of 5.0 is reached, the deployment must be halted, or the next level of standards described in Table 6.2 must be used.

Sea conditions and the resulting ship motion will affect the transient loads created on the wire. Thus, the trend in prevailing weather should be assessed before committing to a deployment, which could approach the limits specified above.

Tension Monitoring

 

Tension may be determined by calculation of instrument weight, wire, weight and entrained volume of water, including transient and dynamic loads, as long as the Owner is confident that a FS of 5.0 will not be compromised.  If no other precise information is available on package drag and/or vessel accelerations, the Vessel Operator should use the ABS “g” factor of 1.75 as a minimum.

Alarms

None

Sheaves & Load Carrying Rollers

The sheave and roller diameter should be as large as practicable.

Deck Safety

Personnel on deck should follow good safety practices when working in the vicinity of wires and ropes during use

Testing

No routine break testing is required. Wires shall only be tested every two years to the desired SWL, along with the handling system.

Logbooks

At a minimum, the Owner shall maintain logs showing cutbacks, spooling operations, lubrication, wire train description and maximum loading (as determined by monitoring system or by calculation for each cast) for the full service life of the rope or wire. The wire log shall transfer with the wire if it is removed and placed in storage, or transferred to another winch or Owner.

Winch Operator

The Owner and the Master of the vessel must deem competent, in writing, all winch operators.  “Deemed Competent” means that both the Owner and the Captain are confident, given the particulars of the winch and the overall operational scenario (weather conditions, equipment being deployed, etc.), that the Winch Operator has the necessary experience to operate the winch safely.


 

Table 6.2 - Wire Rope or Cable - Factor of Safety From Less Than 5.0 to 2.5

General

Wire rope or cable of steel construction may be operated to a nominal FS =2.5 on the ABL, including transient and dynamic loads, as long as the following precautions in this section are adhered to.

When the minimum Factor of Safety of 2.5 is reached, the deployment must be halted, or the next level of standards described in Table 6.3 must be used.

Sea conditions and the resulting ship motion will affect the transient loads created on the wire. Thus, the trend in prevailing weather should be assessed before committing to a deployment, which could approach the limits specified above.

Motion-compensation may be used to reduce the dynamic loads below the permissible limit and/or to reduce the chances of a “zero load” condition.

Tension Monitoring

 

Tension must be monitored at the winch operator’s station with a display resolution of at least 3 Hz (every 330 mS).  The system must also be capable of logging tension data at a minimum frequency of 3 Hz (every 330 mS). The tension measuring system must be calibrated at a minimum of every 6 months at load equal to the imposed at the selected FS. The tension measuring system must be maintained with an accuracy of 4% of the applied load.

Alarms

The handling system shall be fitted with both audible and visual tension alarms that sound and illuminate prior to a FS=2.8 of a wire’s Assigned Breaking Load (ABL).  Alarm conditions must automatically be included in the logged data.

Sheaves & Load Carrying Rollers

The D/d ratio must be at least 40:1 or 400d1 (whichever is greater) throughout.  Grooving of the sheaves should be as close to “d” as practical, and generally no larger than 1.5d. 

Deck Safety

The Operator should identify “Danger Zones” around ropes and wires under tension.  To the extent possible, given the nature of operations involved, all personnel should be excluded from these zones such that a sudden failure cannot result in injury.

Testing

Wire Samples from the end closest to the termination shall be sent for testing every two (2) years and generally in conjunction with handling system SWL tests.  If a 10% decrease in ABL is detected, then the testing shall be increased to annually. Alternately, the Owner may cut back to and re-test a new representative length

Logbooks

At a minimum, the Owner shall maintain logs showing cutbacks, spooling operations, break tests, lubrication, wire train description and maximum loading (as determined by monitoring system or by calculation for each cast) for the full service life of the rope or wire. The wire log shall transfer with the wire if it is removed and placed in storage, or transferred to another winch or Owner.

Winch Operator

The Winch Owner must certify that all Winch Operators are competent.  By “Certified Competent” it is meant that the Owner must have written documentation in place showing that the operator has been through and successfully passed a formal owner/operator developed training program on the winch, handling apparatus, and monitoring system.  The system vendor or the Owner, depending on the complexity of the system, may conduct a formal training program.  The certification must be renewed annually. The master shall verify certifications and designate the approved winch operators.


 

 

Table 6.3 - Wire Rope or Cable - Factor of Safety From Less Than 2.5 to 2.0

General

Wire rope or cable of steel construction may be operated to a nominal FS =2.0 on the ABL, including transient and dynamic loads, as long as the following precautions in this section are adhered to.

FOR CABLES -When the minimum Factor of Safety of 2.0 is reached, the deployment must be halted. FOR WIRE ROPE -When the minimum Factor of Safety of 2.0 is reached, the deployment must be halted, or the next level of standards described in Table 6.4 must be used.

Sea conditions and the resulting ship motion will affect the transient loads created on the wire. Thus, the trend in prevailing weather should be assessed before committing to a deployment, which could approach the limits specified above.

Motion-compensation may be used to reduce the dynamic loads below the permissible limit and/or to reduce the chances of a “zero load” condition.

Tension Monitoring

 

Tension must be monitored at the winch operator’s station with a display resolution of at least 10 Hz (every 100mS).  The system must also be capable of logging tension data at a minimum frequency of 20 Hz (every 50 mS).  Tension must be continuously monitored using a “tension trending” graph at the winch operator’s station. The tension measuring system must be calibrated at a minimum of every 6 months at load equal to the imposed load at the selected FS. The tension measuring system must be maintained with an accuracy of 3% of the applied load.

Alarms

The handling system shall be fitted with both audible and visual tension alarms that sound and illuminate prior to a FS=2.2 of a wire’s Assigned Breaking Load (ABL).  Alarm conditions must automatically be included in the logged data.

Sheaves & Load Carrying Rollers

The D/d ratio must be at least 40:1 or 400d1 (whichever is greater) throughout.  Grooving shall be per Ref A.1.1, Chapter 1, and Section 11.0 to provide adequate support.

Deck Safety

The Operator should identify “Danger Zones” around ropes and wires under tension.  To the extent possible, given the nature of operations involved, all personnel shall be excluded from these zones such that a sudden failure cannot result in injury.  Warning notices should be displayed at points of access indicating the danger.  Physical and/or visual barriers should be erected as needed.  Existing doors and accesses to the area should be secured when possible

Testing

Wire Samples from the end closest to the termination shall be sent for testing annually.  If a 10% decrease in ABL is detected, then the testing shall be increased to every six months. Alternately, the Owner may cut back to and re-test a new representative length.

Logbooks

At a minimum, the Owner shall maintain logs showing cutbacks, spooling operations, lubrication, wire train description and maximum loading (as determined by monitoring system for each cast) for the full service life of the rope or wire. The wire log shall transfer with the wire if it is removed and placed in storage, or transferred to another winch or Owner.

Winch Operator

The Winch Owner must certify that all Winch Operators are competent.  By “Certified Competent” it is meant that the Owner must have written documentation in place showing that the operator has been through and successfully passed a formal owner/operator developed training program on the winch, handling apparatus, and monitoring system.  The system vendor or the Owner, depending on the complexity of the system, may conduct a formal training program.  The certification must be renewed annually. The master shall verify qualifications and designate the approved winch operators.

 


 

 

Table 6.4 - Wire Rope - Factor of Safety From Less Than 2.0 to 1.5

General

Wire rope of steel construction may be operated to a nominal FS =1.5 on the ABL, including transient and dynamic loads, as long as the following precautions in this section are adhered to.

Once a FS = 2.0 is reached a regular check on wire loading shall be performed. This will require halting a deployment at regular intervals (~ 500 m) and conducting a slow haul until the nominal and peak tensions are established and verified.  A decision on whether to proceed must then be based upon the limiting value of SF = 1.5.   The deployment must be halted, when the minimum Factor of Safety of 1.5 is reached.

Sea conditions and the resulting ship motion will affect the transient loads created on the wire. Thus, the trend in prevailing weather should be assessed before committing to a deployment, which could approach the limits specified above.

Motion-compensation may be used to reduce the dynamic loads below the permissible limit and/or to reduce the chances of a “zero load” condition.

Tension Monitoring

 

Tension must be monitored at the winch operator’s station with a display resolution of at least 10 Hz (every 100mS).  The system must also be capable of logging tension data at a minimum frequency of 20 Hz (every 50 mS).  Tension must be continuously monitored using a “tension trending” graph at the winch operator’s station. The tension measuring system must be calibrated at a minimum of every 6 months at load equal to the imposed load at the selected FS. The tension measuring system must be maintained with an accuracy of 3% of the applied load.

Alarms

The handling system shall be fitted with both audible and visual tension alarms that sound and illuminate at prior to a FS=1.7 of a wire’s Assigned Breaking Load (ABL).  Alarm conditions must automatically be included in the logged data.

Sheaves & Load Carrying Rollers

The D/d ratio must be at least 40:1 or 400d1 (whichever is greater) throughout. Grooving shall be per Ref A.1.1, Chapter 1, and Section 11.0 to provide adequate support.

Deck Safety

The Operator should identify “Danger Zones” around ropes and wires under tension.  To the extent possible, given the nature of operations involved, all personnel shall be excluded from these zones such that a sudden failure cannot result in injury.  Warning notices should be displayed at points of access indicating the danger.  Physical and/or visual barriers should be erected as needed.  Existing doors and accesses to the area should be secured when possible

Testing

Wire Samples from the end closest to the termination shall be sent for testing annually.  If a 10% decrease in ABL is detected, then the testing shall be increased to every six months. Alternately, the Owner may cut back to and re-test a new representative length.

Logbooks

At a minimum, the Owner shall maintain logs showing cutbacks, spooling operations, lubrication, wire train description and maximum loading (as determined by monitoring system or by calculation for each cast) for the full service life of the rope or wire. The wire log shall transfer with the wire if it is removed and placed in storage, or transferred to another winch or Owner.

Winch Operator

The Winch Owner must certify that all Winch Operators are competent.  By “Certified Competent” it is meant that the Owner must have written documentation in place showing that the operator has been through and successfully passed a formal owner/operator developed training program on the winch, handling apparatus, and monitoring system.  The system vendor or the Owner, depending on the complexity of the system, may conduct a formal training program.  The certification must be renewed annually. The master shall verify qualifications and designate the approved winch operators.


A.6.5  Synthetic Tension Members [Reserved]

 

A.6.6   Ship operators and their seagoing staff must understand that if, by force of circumstance or by the desire to maintain scientific operations while on a cruise, when they do not meet the operating requirements as described in tables 6.1 through 6.4, they are embarking on a potentially dangerous activity.  The consequences of this activity could be loss of valuable equipment, damage to the vessel and its fixed equipment, and, in the worst case, injury to personnel.  Operators shall develop a procedure on how, and under what circumstances, the vessel will safely continue operations in the event the operating requirements are not met.

 

A.7         EXAMPLES

A.7.1      Examples of where a SF of 5 has to be used because a tension measuring system is not available or the sheave/roller diameters are smaller than required.

 

 

 

 

A.7.2      Example: Estimating the FS Requirements that will need to be met.


 

A.7.3      Example: Calculating the amount of dynamic loading that can occur before an operation needs to be halted for when the minimum FS of 2 is reached.